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Links & References

Agency Links

US Army Corps of Engineers Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
South Carolina Department of Natural Resources
Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study
Georgia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Clemson University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
US Fish and Wildlife Service
USGS National Wildlife Health Center
USGS Non-indigenous aquatic species
NOAA: Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research

 

References

Augspurger, T., J. R. Fischer, N. J. Thomas, L. Sileo, R. E. Brannian, K. J. G. Miller, and T. E. Rocke. 2003. Vacuolar myelinopathy in waterfowl from a North Carolina impoundment. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39: 412-417.

Birrenkott, A. H., S. B. Wilde, J. J. Hains, J. R. Fischer, T. M. Murphy, C. P. Hope, P. G. Parnell, and W. W. Bowerman. 2004. Establishing a food-chain linkage between aquatic plant material and avian vacuolar myelinopathy in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40: 435-492. 

Birrenkott, A. H. 2003. Investigating the cause of avain vacuolar myelinopathy and the consequences to the South Carolina Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population. MS Thesis, Clemson University, South Carolina. 49 pp.

Bryan, A. L. Jr., T. M. Murphy, K. L. Bildstein, I. L. Brisbin Jr., J. J. Mayer. 1996. Use of reservoirs and other artificial impoundments by bald eagle in South Carolina. In: Raptors in human landscapes: Adaptations to built and cultivated structures. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA, pp. 287-297. 

Dodder, N. G., B. Strandberg, T. Augspurger, and R. A. Hites. 2003. Lipophilic organic compounds in lake sediment and American coot (Fulica americana) tissues, both affected and unaffected by avian vacuolar myelinopathy. Science of the Total Environment 311:81-89.

Duncan, I. D. 1985. Toxic Myelinopathies. Neurotoxicity of Industrial and Commercial Chemicals 1: 15-50.

Elser, D. 1989. An assessment of American coot herbivory of hydrilla. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 1147-1149. 

Fischer, J., L. A. Lewis-Weis, and C. M. Tate. 2003. Experimental vacuolar myelinopathy in red-tailed hawks. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39: 400-406.

Fischer, J., L. A. Lewis-Weis, C. M. Tate, J. K. Gayydos, R. W. Gerhold, R. H. Poppenga. 2006. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy outbreaks at a southeastern reservoir. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42: 501-510. 

Griffin, C. R., T. S. Baskett, and R. D. Sparrowe. 1982. Ecology of bald eagles wintering near a waterfowl concentration. USFWS Special Scientific Report Number 247.

Hardin, S., R. Land, M. Spellman, and G. Morse. 1984. Food items of grass carp,ringneck ducks, and American coots from a central Florida Lake. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 38: 313-318.

Haynie, R. S. 2008. Investigating risks, effects, and a potential management strategy for avian vacuolar myelinopathy on southeastern reservoirs using an eco-epidemological approach. PhD Dissertation. Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 

Larsen, R. S., F. B. Nutter, T. Augspurger, T. E. Rocke, L. Tomlinson, N. J. Thomas, M. and K. Stoskopf. 2002. Clinical features of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in American coots. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 221: 80-85.

Larsen, R. S., F. B. Nutter, T. Augspurger, T. E. Rocke, N. J. Thomas, and M. K. Stoskopf. 2003. Failure to Transmit Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy to Mallard Ducks. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 221: 80-85.

Lewis-Weis, L. A., J. Fischer, and R. W. Gerhold. 2004. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40: 476-484. 

Rocke, T. E., N. J. Thomas, T. Augspurger, and K. Miller. 2002. Epizootiologic studies of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in waterbirds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38: 678 684.

Rocke, T. E., N. J. Thomas, C. U. Meteyer, C. F. Quist, J. R. Fischer, T. Augspurger, and S. E. Ward. 2005. Attempts to identify the source of avian vacuolar myelinipathy for waterbirds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41: 163-170.

Thomas, N. J., C. U. Meteyer, and L. Sileo. 1998. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana). Veterinary Pathology 35: 479-487. 

Wilde, S. B., T. M. Murphy, C. P. Hope, S. K. Habrun, J. Kempton, A. Birrenkott, F. Wiley, W. W. Bowerman, and A. J. Lewitus. 2005. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species. Environmental Toxicology 20: 348-353. 

Wilde, S.B., J.R. Johansen, H.D. Wilde, P. Jiang, B.A. Bartelme, and R.S. Haynie. 2014. Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov.: Epiphytic cyanobacteria on invasive aquatic plants implicated in Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy. Phytotaxa 181 (5): 243-260.

Wiley, F. E., S. B. Wilde, A. H. Birrenkott, S. K. Williams, T. M. Murphy, C. P. Hope, W. W. Bowerman, and J. R. Fischer. 2007. Investigation of the link between avian vacuolar myelinopathy and a novel species of cyanobacteria through laboratory feeding trials. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 

Wiley, F. E., M. J. Twiner, T. A. Leighfield, S. B. Wilde, F. M. Van Dolah, W. W. Bowerman, and J. R. Fischer. 2009. An extract of Hydrilla verticillata and associated epiphytes responsible for avian vacuolar myelinopathy. Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 

Wiley, F. E. 2007. Extraction method development and in vivo and in vitro studies of the etiologic agent of avian vacuolar myelinopathy. PhD Dissertation. Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 

Williams, S. K., J. Kempton, S. B. Wilde, and A. Lewitius. 2007. A novel epiphytic cyanobacterium associated with reservoirs affected by avian vacuolar myelinopathy. Harmful Algae 6: 343-353.